books2022

This year (2022)

Previous years: 2021; 2020; 2019; 2018; 2017; 2016; 2015; 2014; 2013; 2012; 2011; 2010; 2009; 2008; 2007; 2006; 2005


Philippa Gregory:
    Tidelands & Dark Tides
Stacey Halls:
    The Familiars
    Mrs England
    The Foundling
Jack London:
    The Sea-Wolf
    Martin Eden
Hayley Mills:
    Forever Young
John Banville:
    April in Spain & Mefisto
    Snow
    The Newton Letter
    Even the Dead
    The Book of Evidence
Benjamin Black:
    Christine Falls
    The Silver Swan
    Elegy for April
    A Death in Summer
    Vengeance
    Holy Orders
Lisa See:
    Snow Flower and the Secret Fan
Douglas Hurd:
    Robert Peel, a Biography
Claire Tomalin:
    Samuel Pepys, The Unequaled Self
Kathy Glass:
    Hidden: Betrayed exploited and forgotten
Rudolf Steiner:
    Christianity as Mystical Fact and the Mysteries of Antiquity

Tidelands & Dark Tides, by Philippa Gregory

     These are two books, the second of which is a continuation of the first, thus making two parts of a single story. In Tidelands the time is 1648. Oliver Cromwell is in charge of his New Model Army, forging a New Normal for England. The King, Charles, has been arrested and is being confined - more or less - to a house on the Isle of Wight. From there he appeals to the Scots, the Welsh, perhaps even the Irish, to take up arms against the New Model Army to defend his God-given position as divine leader of England. On the "Continent" the Peace of Westphalia has just been agreed, ending the Thirty Years War. All of this is usually represented as being a matter of religious fanatics killing one another; an example of "mass formation psychosis". But was this true? Was it really a psychosis similar to the madness we are living in today which is driven by the irrational idea that Death can be conquered by injecting magic scientific potions into the body every few months? And did all those people around the time of 1648 kill each other merely because they had different ideas about what is the true doctrine to tell us what we should expect to find after Death? The story in this book gives us a different perspective. Accordingly it was a matter of the masses of normal people revolting against the injustice of those days. The fact that everything was owned by a few oligarchs - the aristocracy. The normal people "owned nothing and were not happy". Such is the background to the story of these books.
    We are concerned with simple folk living in a fictional place called Sealsea Island which we are told is such that Chichester is about 8 or 10 miles to the north. Looking at the map I see that there is a real-life town named Selsey on the south coast of England about 10 miles south of Chichester. However Selsey is not an island, nor is it a tideland, being situated behind a well-defined beach and consisting of summer cottages. Perhaps we should think slightly to the west, for example Thorney Island, near the Chichester harbor and yacht club.
    The heroine is Alinor, a woman in her mid 20s with two children in their early teens. (Things progressed rapidly in those days!) Her husband, a fisherman, disappeared a year ago, leaving her practically destitute, dressed in rags, living on meager portions of thin gruel. She also serves as a midwife to the peasants of the island. Suddenly, in the middle of the night, James, a finely dressed gentleman in his early 20s appears, asking for help. She leads him to the house of the local squire, Sir William Peachey. We discover that James has been transported over from France where he has become a Catholic priest and a member of a monastery. His mission is to conduct secret and private masses in the castles of those aristocrats who have not rejected popery. Also he is to organize an escape for King Charles, finding a ship to carry him from the Isle of Wight to his remaining admirers in France. All of this falls through. But at least James falls madly in love with Alinor, and she with him.
    During a few days of torrid sex a baby is conceived. Also in another thread of the story, Alinor's precocious daughter Alys has become pregnant to the local farmyard hero. James travels away on his important mission, promising to return to carry Alinor away. He is in London, observing the legal process against King Charles and the subsequent beheading. Upon his return, Alinor, who has suddenly discovered her own pregnancy, tells James. He is dumbfounded. - Perhaps in those days Catholic priests were not informed about the Birds and the Bees. - He insists that Alinor do something to get rid of it. She doesn't. And in the other thread of the story, Alys steals the money for the dowry her lover's parents are insisting upon. All of this leads to violent scenes and the accusation that Alinor is a witch. James wants nothing to do with the whole business; Alinor is subjected to a trial by dunking which she barely survives; Sir William Peachey declares that she is thus not a witch; and finally Alys forces James to give up a few coins, sufficient to enable both her and Alinor to escape to London.
    So ends the first book.
    Therefore I thought it would be interesting to see how things go on with the second book.
    It is now 21 years later. Alinor and Alys have a small warehouse on the south bank of the Thames. Suddenly James appears. He is Sir James Avery, the owner of a huge mansion on The Strand as well as huge properties and castles on his lands somewhere in the north of England. He assumes that Alinor has borne a son which is his heir who has now come of age. An interesting idea with the potential for producing further drama...
    Unfortunately though, the author found it necessary to tell three or four other, completely different stories in an endless series of short chapters jumping back and forth between one and the next. We have the brother of Alinor somewhere in the backwoods of New England, siding with the Indians rather than with his fellow puritan settlers. This story had absolutely nothing to do with the main story. Then there is a story of intrigue and seduction in Venice and London. A hopeless mishmash. What a disappointment.

The Familiars, by Stacey Halls

     It is 1612. Queen Elizabeth has been succeeded by King James who, famously, wrote the book, Daemonologie, which is concerned with the problem of witches. Indeed, the Witchcraft Act of 1542 deals with people who:
... use devise practise or exercise, or cause to be devysed practised or exercised, any Invovacons or cojuracons of Sprites witchecraftes enchauntementes or sorceries to thentent to fynde money or treasure or to waste consume or destroy any persone in his bodie membres...
Accordingly, in the modern world William Henry ("Bill") Gates III is a witch. In Scotland witches were burned at the stake. In England they were hanged; perhaps a more humane method of getting rid of them.
    The book is concerned with the Lancaster witches. Twelve people were accused of witchcraft. Of those, 10 were hanged, one died in prison, and one, Alice Grey, was acquitted. All of these historical figures with their stories, as related by Thomas Potts in his The Wonderfull Discoverie of Witches in the Countie of Lancaster are characters in this novel, as is Thomas Potts himself as well as the horrible magistrate Roger Nowell. The story is built around a fictional character with a beautiful name: Fleetwood Shuttleworth. She has not yet reached the age of twenty, but she has already had three painful stillbirths. She is much in love with her husband, Richard, as is he with her. They are the wealthy owners of extensive lands and manor houses. Alice Grey is a poor, almost destitute woman who is a midwife, gathering herbs and other plants to help women through the travails of pregnancy. And thus a dramatic story develops with Fleetwood saving Alice who helps her with her pregnancy.

Mrs England, by Stacey Halls

     I enjoyed the last one so much that I thought I'd try another of the stories of Stacey Halls. As with the first, this is inspired by an actual historical event. On the night of the 18th of September 1896, Charles Albert Browne threw two of his daughters 75 meters down into the waters below the Clifton Suspension Bridge. Both survived. The elder daughter, Ruby, suffered no lasting physical injuries (but see the previous book: The Body Keeps the Score for an account of the mental injuries, particularly given that it was her father), while the younger daughter, Elsie, was partially paralyzed. The father was put into the Broadmoor Criminal Lunatic Asylum, but then we are told that he was discharged into the care of his wife in 1899. Imagine the horror this would have been for the poor girls, always knowing that their father could strike again at any time in the middle of the night. Thankfully in the story of the book, the author has the father dying in the lunatic asylum. But nevertheless, Ruby, whose last name has become May, continues to suffer the consequences.
    We only learn about all of this towards the end of the book. Ruby has graduated from a posh college for nurses. So she is Nurse May. However she does not work in a hospital handing the surgeons their gleaming instruments, or caring for the patients lying in their beds. Instead she has been trained to look after the children of wealthy families, wearing the stylish uniform associated with the college. We are told that she is not a "nursemaid". Looking it up in the Wikipedia I see that a nursemaid is considered to be inferior, or assistant to, a more senior "nurse". This more senior grade of childminder is also known as a "nanny". And then we have the idea of a governess, someone who is expected to not only look after the children of the rich, but to teach them as well. Judging from the writings of the Brontë sisters, such a role, teaching rich little brats, must have been horrible. But in this book everything is sweetness and loving care, with the four children of the England family loving and worshiping Nurse May above everything else.
    Getting started in the book we wonder about the strange behavior of Mrs. England and the almost overly friendly reception by Mr. England. They own a cotton mill somewhere in the north of England. I forget exactly the time of the story, but it must be sufficient for Ruby to have grown up after the trauma of 1896 and gotten through college, so perhaps it would be around 1905. Mrs. England's parents and grand parents have much more extensive textile factories than that of the England family, and they live in huge mansions. But they seem strangely cold and reserved. What are the hidden secrets? How will it all end?

The Foundling, by Stacey Halls

     The time of the story is 1747, and then a couple of years afterwards in 1752, so it is placed half way between the two previous novels. This time there seems to be no particular historical event forming the basis of the story, and perhaps for this reason it feels contrived and unlikely.
    We learn about the Foundling Hospital; there is a map of London at the beginning of the book, showing us where it was located. My Kindle does not make a good job of displaying such illustrations so I found a better map of London online, showing the whole situation. This is John Rocque's Map of 24 sheets, and we find the Foundling Hospital, seeming to be smaller than the description given to us by Stacey Halls, when double-clicking for magnification on sheet C1. It was out in the fields to the north of town. Of course in modern London, sheet C1 is the middle of the city, in Bloomsbury, and the Foundling Hospital has been replaced by the Foundling Museum.
    The idea was that babies of destitute mothers might, depending on a lottery system, be admitted to the Hospital where they would be looked after and then educated to the extent of becoming useful laborers in the case of boys, or servants in the case of girls.
    In the story of the book, a poor woman admires a handsome young man from afar. She sees him entering a pub and lingers outside, waiting for him. He takes her into a dark alley, lifts her skirts, inserts himself and thus fathers a baby. She sees no more of the man but, being secretly in love with him, learns that he has died. Nine months later she gives the baby up into the Foundling Hospital. Five years after that she wants to retrieve her daughter. It turns out that the baby had been retrieved by the wife of the father of the baby the day after it was given up. This wife, or widow, lives as a recluse, suffering from post traumatic stress disorder induced by having seen both her parents shot dead by highwaymen when she was a small child. And so she confined the child to a close isolation. But then our heroine, the actual mother, managed to become the nursemaid to the child. Immediately, without knowing the truth of her parentage, the young girl falls totally under the influence, the love, of the nursemaid - her biological mother - and she hates her false, apparent mother. And we are continually confronted with the discrepancy between the inherited wealth of the false mother and the grinding poverty of the true mother. What is to be the fate of the child? Such is the story. There are further contrived twists to the plot. The young doctor who is the director of the Foundling Hospital is in love with the false mother (or is it only her wealth?) despite the fact that she is depicted as being an unpleasant monster. All of this was rather a let-down, particularly since I had enjoyed the story of Fleetwood Shuttleworth and the Lancaster Witches.

The Sea-Wolf, by Jack London

     I've been reading lots of books written by women, probably for women, and so I was in the mood to read something more masculine. Something by Jack London. I must have read The Call of the Wild many years ago, but if so I have completely forgotten about it. I do remember having read John Barleycorn. There the author tells us about his alcoholism, describing in great detail the depravity of it all. A disturbing and unsettling book. Looking at the pictures of Jack London in his Wikipedia article and reading about his life we do not see an aggressive, brutal, masculine figure in the style of an Ernest Hemingway. He had sensitive features. The Klondike Gold Rush was a catastrophe for him. His California ranch was a failure. But he seemed to be always in search of adventure and this led to him becoming an extremely successful author.
    The story of the book starts off with Humphrey Van Weyden, a literary critic, on a ferry in San Francisco Bay, traveling from Sausalito across the Golden Gate back to the city. Of course the bridge had not yet been built when the book was published in 1904. There is a thick fog, and he speaks with his neighbor who tells him how dangerous this is. Suddenly the ferry is struck by another ship and sinks. Humphrey is in the freezing water, lost in the fog, drifting out to sea. A schooner passes by and picks him up. They are going across the Pacific to Japan and the seal hunting grounds. The captain is Wolf Larson. Humphrey expects to be put ashore, or at least transferred to a passing ship returning to San Francisco. He is prepared to pay a great amount of money for the service. But Larson refuses. He laughs at Humphrey, calling him "Hump", telling him that he should learn to earn his own living rather than just living off society using the money that his father has left him.
    Larson turns out to be a brutal character, murdering sailors on a whim. But he is self-educated and widely read. Humphrey and Larson have long conversations, disputes on philosophy. Is the human condition characterized by finer, moral values, or is the only purpose of life the satisfaction of ones own desires, regardless of what brutalities those desires might involve? Various philosophers are bandied about. In particular Nietzsche plays a role.
    Somewhere about the house we have a dusty old volume of the works of Nietzsche, printed in a fraktur typeface. But I decided to download Also Sprach Zarathustra from Project Gutenberg. For the last few years, gutenberg.org has been blocked in Germany owing to the fact that some German publisher claimed the rights to some sort of ancient book, and started litigation. But thankfully that must have been resolved since the blockage has now been lifted.
    I have now made it through the first part of Zarathustra. Rather heavy going. For lighter relief I have started on another of Jack London's books. Zarathustra (or Zoroaster) was thought to have lived over 3000 years ago and is considered by some to be the first philosopher in history. In Nietzsche's version he begins by emerging from his cave and standing in the light of the sun. He descends from the mountains to teach humanity. His first lecture is to the inhabitants of a mountain village. He speaks about the will to live, the striving for success, but this did not go down well and he was kicked out of town. Then there follows a long sequence of short chapters on various aspects of life and of people. Lots of disjointed ideas, saying one thing and another, often seemingly unrelated to one another. I see that there have been various translations into English, but I can hardly imagine how that would be possible. For example think of translating Finnegan's Wake into some other language. You would end up inventing a jumble of language which has a more or less tenuous relation to the original. And with Also Sprach Zarathustra we have a language and a world which has changed beyond all recognition in the time since it was published in the 1880s.
    For example the word "Übermensch" is usually translated into English as the word "Superman". We think of Clark Kent, donning his costume and jumping over skyscrapers. Or we think of Nazis and concentration camps. In the present book Wolf Larson is taken as an example of such an Übermensch. In contrast Humphrey Van Weyden is a civilized "Normal-mensch". But all of this is not really what Nietzsche is saying. Übermensch is not particularly a word in the German language. But Untermensch is. That is someone who is down-trodden, hopeless, poor. And yes, also someone who is subhuman. A Nazi would apply the term to Jewish people, Africans, even Asians. But that was not the case with Nietzsche. For him, becoming an Übermensch was an uplifting idea, raising oneself to a higher level of existence. Of course I really have no time or inclination for vague philosophical thoughts. But I do plan on gradually making my way to the end of Also Sprach Zarathustra. It is true that there is a kind of rhythm to the language. Nietzsche was a friend of Wagner, and he imagined that some of his text could be set to music. And of course we have the wonderfully inspiring settings of Mahler and Strauss.
    Finally the schooner reaches the hunting grounds off Japan. They encounter a small boat filled with people who have been shipwrecked. Most are sailors, but there is also a lady, Maud Brewster. And they are also kidnapped by Wolf Larson. She is a poet and it turns out that she knows of Humphrey and he of her. There are literary conversations, with Larson an amused listener. After various dramatic moments, Humphrey and Maud escape in one of the ship's boats. They fight storms, nearly drowning, but eventually, after what seems like weeks, being driven by the wind and the seas, they happily drift into a protected cove within a larger cove on a deserted island, perhaps somewhere along the Aleutian chain. They begin to survive and to fall in love with one another. But then one day, the derelict schooner happens to drift into exactly the same cove within a cove on this same remote island. This is as ridiculous a twist of the plot as is that in Jane Eyre.
    (Jack London - and also Charlotte Brontë - should have thought through what they were going to write before getting lost in such nonsense!)
    Anyway, the ship is deserted except for Larson, who seems sick. He tries to kill them, without success. He dies himself, and Humphrey and Maud, having repaired the ship, disappear into the sunset, living happily ever after.
    It is said that the character of Wolf Larson was based on the real life character of someone named Captain Alexander McLean. But surely if a captain of such a wild hunting ship, filled with brutal hunters and tough sailors, terrorized and murdered one after the other of the crew, then he would himself have been quickly murdered. After all, even an Übermensch like Larson would have to sleep and be vulnerable to a knife in the back or some other method of dispatching him, thus proving the falsity of this interpretation of Nietzsche's philosophy.

Martin Eden, by Jack London

     A rough young man, Martin Eden, on the ferry from San Francisco to Oakland, sees someone being attacked by ruffians. He steps in with his fists, coming to the aid of the stranger. And so he is invited to the house of the Morse family for dinner. They are of a finer class. The father is a rich lawyer, the brother whom Martin has saved is a student at the University of California at Berkeley, as is the daughter, Ruth. Martin sways in with his seaman's gait, feeling awkward in his muscular, working mans body and clothes, embarrassed by his halting, grammatically challenged speech full of slang and double-negatives, and he is bowled over by the beauty and refinement of Ruth. Yet all are thankful that he has saved the brother, and they listen eagerly to his seaman's yarns of his travels about the Pacific and his visits to foreign lands. Ruth is both repelled and fascinated by his muscular strength. She says in parting that he should call again. And so a deep relationship develops between Martin and Ruth. She teaching him to speak English properly, he burying himself in books, seeking self-improvement, reading, writing, studying all day, allowing himself only 5 hours sleep each night and even resenting this time away from his studies.
    Within a short time he speaks correctly, at least according to the standards of Ruth and the Morse family, and he has mastered literature and philosophy to the extent of being able to talk down to a professor of something or other from Berkley who is visiting the Morse household. Martin's ambition is to become a famous best-selling writer, dashing off novels, poems, critical essays, and gathering in huge royalties. He produces reams of manuscripts, sending them off to one magazine after the other. And he is astonished to find that they are rejected. Everything is rejected. Yet he knows that what he has produced is better than the stuff which fills those magazines.
    He has no income, despite working 19 hours each day. This is all for Ruth; he imagines that when he becomes rich and famous they will marry. Ruth is also in love and would like to marry him, but she sees that his writing is leading nowhere. Martin pawns his bicycle, his good suit; he often goes hungry; Ruth's father offers him a position as clerk in his office. He should get a real job. But Martin knows that he is superior to all that. He insults the father and a visiting judge with arrogant philosophical posturings. He is rejected by the family, and Ruth tells Martin that it is all over between them.
    Unexpectedly, a manuscript is accepted and he receives 5 dollars. It was a long manuscript. He had read somewhere that magazines pay 2 cents per word, but counting the number of words in his manuscript he realizes that he is only getting a tenth of a cent. Or something. Then another manuscript is accepted and he is promised 40 dollars, but the money never comes. An empty promise. He is disillusioned. He gives up writing. Wandering back to the slums of Oakland he meets his old crowd and a true woman, Lizzy, who loves him beyond anything. But he is no longer part of them. Gradually more and more of his old manuscripts are accepted. Money starts to roll in. He is rich and famous. Ruth now wants to marry him; the mother is suddenly friendly. But Martin asks why? He is the same person as before. These are the same manuscripts which everybody rejected when he was poor and half starving. The world is false and meaningless. (But why didn't he go back to poor Lizzy?) He takes a cruise into the Pacific on a luxury steamer and in the middle of the night drops silently into the ocean, drowning himself.
    The moral of the story? Riches and Fame don't make you happy?
    I wondered how much of this was autobiographical. Jack London didn't drown himself, but he did die at the age of 40, overdosing on morphine, perhaps a suicide. Particularly at the end of the book, Nietzsche is referred to, and during Martin's arrogant rants, Nietzsche's philosophy is propounded. I am still slowly reading through Also Sprach Zarathustra. My mistake at first was to think of reading it smoothly, from page to page. The chapters are short and the sentences are clear and concise. But often, at least at first, they seem to give little sense. It is perhaps a kind of poetry in prose. There is an iconic picture of Nietzsche, a drawing of the ill philosopher taken from a photograph after he had become insane, just before his death. His insanely huge mustache and sunken eyes. But as a younger man he was quite handsome. He became a professor of classics at the University of Basel when he was 24 years old. And he did not look like a muscular superman.

Forever Young, by Hayley Mills

     Along with thousands, if not millions of other teenagers back in the early 1960s, I was in love with the actress Hayley Mills. I must have watched the movies she made with Walt Disney. Later, perhaps much later when it was shown on TV, I saw Tiger Bay, her first movie. Then when visiting Plymouth for various weeks ten years ago, I remembered that first film and so got the DVD. What a delight it was to again see the 12 year old Hayley Mills playing opposite Horst Buchholz. In fact Hayley Mills tells us in this book that she was secretly, totally in love with Horst, and she dreamed that perhaps in 10 years when she had grown up they might make a sequel to Tiger Bay with the character of Horst Buchholz, now 35 years old, being released from prison to fall in love with the mature 22 year old Gillie, and then in real life Hayley and Horst would marry and live happily ever after. Tiger Bay has been made available in its full length on YouTube. A wonderful film, not to be compared with the childish kitsch of Disney.
    We are told of her feelings for Walt Disney. He was almost a second father for her. Whatever else one might say about him, he certainly was a man of high moral standards, far different from the sleazy Hollywood figures we read about who are only too eager to exploit those under them. For Hayley Mills the Disney studios were a second family. At the end of her exclusive contract with them she was offered a further contract. She was now about 18 and thinking of other roles.
    Earlier, when she was 14 she had been offered the role of Lolita in Stanley Kubrik's film, but Disney refused to let her have it. She very much regretted this. She herself was feeling the emotions, the awkwardness of entering puberty, and she could imagine a Humbert Humbert. (But really, Sue Lyon, the actress who played the role was much more in character, despite what Hayley Mills might have felt.) Instead she was allowed to star in an independent, black and white British film, Whistle Down the Wind, based on a story written by her mother. The story takes place in the rural north of England. A girl, played by Hayley, discovers an injured man hiding in the family barn. He is a murderer. She asks him who he is. He exclaims, "Jesus Christ" to express the hopelessness of his situation. So she believes he is the biblical Christ, tells lots of other children, they flock to see him, but in the end he is taken away by the police. We are told that the film was a great success in England and also in America. As with Tiger Bay, it can be freely seen in YouTube. I find it difficult to understand the critical praise it received back then. The Lolita-like Hayley Mills, at 14, is much taller than all the other little children in the film who are perhaps between 7 and 10 years old. It is simply unbelievable that a 14 year old girl could be so silly. At least the children playing her brother and sister fitted into their roles.
    Then when she was 18 or 19 and free of Disney contracts she was in The Family Way. Again an independent British film, in color this time, the north of England, but in a dreadfully small, almost claustrophobic, working class house in a dreary, dirty city. The story is that she marries the son of the family; the money for the honeymoon has been stolen, and so they exist in small rooms with paper-thin walls, surrounded by the rude conversations of everybody. In this situation the newly married husband is unable to consummate the marriage. Eventually the brother, or somebody else, does. There is even a fleeting nude scene. I remember going to the movies and seeing the film as a student back then and feeling that she had somehow violated whatever it was that we had felt for her. And in the book she tells us about all of her feelings when making the film. She even thought of suicide, closing her eyes, putting her foot down on the accelerator and driving her car off the road. But she did not manage to kill herself. Instead the car ran softly into a bush, and so she reversed out and drove back to the studio. Back in those student days I read that she had married someone who was more than 30 years older than she was. She was no longer a lovable little girl.
    In fact by the time she tells us about her marriage to Roy Boulting, the book is almost at an end. She mentions the forgettable films and not so forgettable stage performances which came later, but that is no longer part of being "Forever Young". The marriage to Boulting did not last long. She had a son with him (it was his 5th or 6th son, and his fourth marriage). She never married again, having another son with somebody else, and for the last 20 years her partner has been a very pleasant looking man who is 20 years younger than she is. She tells us that she was very close to Andrew Birkin, someone her age, the brother of Jane, even in love with him, but she was afraid of losing him if they were to marry.
    She tells us about all the famous actors and actresses she worked with: "Larry" Olivier, "Dicky" Attenborough, and so on. They are all sweet, wonderful. Filming a big movie, the cast and the production team are all intimately together for months at a time, becoming great friends, telling stories, jokes. Or being part of a traveling stage production for weeks and months is an even more totally fulfilling emotional experience. Yet when the film is finished or the play has come to an end, everybody has a farewell party, they go their own ways, and there comes an emptiness. Thankfully Hayley Mills, at now 75, has retained her youthful, even childlike optimism and her love for her children and grandchildren.
    We imagine those famous Hollywood actors living in their mansions in Beverly Hills, or out in Malibu, throwing extravagant parties, driving exclusive, expensive cars, enjoying all their riches. But unfortunately this is not the case with child actors. Their parents have control of the money. For example we are told that Shirley Temple, the darling of the 1930s, upon reaching 21 and being allowed to take control of her finances, discovered that only $10,000 remained. Her parents had spent all the rest. The situation with Hayley Mills was different. Her father was himself a famous actor with no time for all that paperwork, and so he simply left everything to the family lawyer. Often a dangerous policy!
    The family lawyer was a comfortable, established man with pleasant offices in London. He was welcomed into the family home. A father figure and an intimate friend of the family. He took his 2 or 3% or more, year for year, all very proper. Hayley Mills received £10,000 for each of her 6 films with Disney. In today's devalued money that would be about $200,000 per film. Invested sensibly between 1960 and 1967 it should have given say two million of today's dollars. On her 21st birthday she went happily into the offices of the family lawyer, having given little thought to all of her earnings until then. They gave her a thick manila envelope from the British tax authorities, informing her that everything was to be taxed at the rate of 95%!! Adding to that the fees taken out by the lawyer, she was in fact deeply in debt as a reward for all her work as a child. Such was the rapacious Labour Government of Harold Wilson's Britain. For some obscure reason which she doesn't explain in the book, if the lawyer had taken some action before her 21st birthday then this tax would not have applied. Roy Boulting advised her to sue the lawyer, but how could she do that? Instead she followed the advice of the lawyer, contesting the tax in the courts, one appeal after the other up to the High Court, and even in the end to the House of Lords which was the ultimate authority. At each stage of the litigation the lawyer's fees increased, as did Hayley Mills' debts proportionately. The end result was that she lost. But she put this behind her and went on with life.

April in Spain & Mefisto, by John Banville

     We start off with a man and a woman on holiday in the town of San Sebastian in the Basque region of Spain. Gradually we learn that he is Irish, a drinker, and a pathologist in Dublin. His wife is a psychiatrist, Jewish, having fled from the Nazis. It is some time in the late 1950s or early 1960s. While drinking in one of the local bars he spots what he believes to be a familiar face, someone from the past, but he can't quite place her, and so an elaborate story develops. The mysterious woman was supposed to have been killed years ago by her brother who himself committed suicide. She belongs to a powerful political dynasty in Ireland with family secrets. The fact that the woman is living secretly in Spain, if known, would lead to the downfall of the family. And so a killer is organized to get rid of her.
    How does a prominent family go about eliminating an unwanted member? Obviously I have no idea at all. But if for example we were to take at face value some of the various lines of speculation concerning the death of Princess Diana, then it would seem that there exist agencies within the tentacles of government to deal with such a situation on a professional level. Did there exist such things in Ireland in the 1950s and 60s? Who knows? In any case the killer in the story is just an isolated little man with a troubled childhood who happens to have randomly come to the attention of the civil servant who has been assigned the task of dealing with the situation. We follow the killer about, getting to know his feelings for things, his lack of plans, the spontaneity of his actions. And we follow all the other characters as well.
    Wonderfully elegant writing, often amusing. A great book.

    After finishing April in Spain, I looked for something else by John Banville. It seems that he has written a whole series of these detective stories. But then I saw that he had also written a book which was said to be based on mathematical ideas, Mefisto, and so I downloaded that. What a disappointment! It was a long-winded narrative of a character doing one thing and another, each of these things being irrelevant to the further development of whatever plot there was, and all being described in tedious detail. The character was supposed to be interested in mathematics. A few unrelated and often falsely used mathematical words are thrown in. I plodded through to the end of Part 1, hoping it might improve. And I even got halfway through Part 2 before giving up. The character is interacting with some sort of strange computer, reflecting the fantasies of science fiction authors of the 1930s. Yet the book was first published in 1986, a time when the author would have been aware of the reality of personal computers. The title of the book reminds us of the Faust Legend. Whether or not the book had anything to do with that was not apparent.
    I wonder if the author, having arrived with all the rest of us in the year 2022, has grasped the truly diabolical nature of computers. We are now expected to carry around with us these horrible little objects which are filled with various features, doing who knows what, capable of spying on our every activity, and which are necessary for proving that certain aspects of our bodily activities satisfy the given norm. A new kind of pact with the Devil.

Snow, by John Banville

     Undeterred by the previous book, I read another detective story by John Banville. This time we have a Catholic priest being murdered in a run-down stately home of the earlier Protestant aristocracy in rural Ireland in 1957. I wonder if Banville himself is a Protestant. The story develops in the style of Agatha Christie. But before the halfway point it diverges from that style since by then it becomes clear to the reader "who done it". It was again a beautifully written story, but the theme is unpleasant.
    The aristocracy of the Catholic Church, all those bishops, cardinals, popes, continue today to reside in the their palaces, surrounded by riches. Yet unlike 1957, they are now openly confronted with the corruption and sins which were committed in those days. Undoubtedly in another 50 years - around 2075 - the bishops, cardinals, popes of the future, residing in their palaces, enjoying their riches, will apologize for the corruption and sins which are being committed today. This is not to say that I would favor one particular religion over another. But it was a very overdue reform which was enacted by Martin Luther back in 1517 when he declared that priests should be allowed to marry.
    Modern popular culture is obsessed with sexuality. And so the question naturally arises as to why a young man would voluntarily enter into a closed male society in which the rule of celibacy is enforced. I am sure that it is not the case that all Catholic priests are homosexual. And I know that not all homosexuals are pedophiles, just as I know that not all heterosexuals are pedophiles. Nevertheless the victim of the murder in this story was a Catholic priest who 10 years before this time, in 1947, was one of the Catholic brothers responsible for an institution for delinquent boys. And in a disgusting chapter he describes his feelings of euphoric religious exultation while thrusting himself into the anus of "his" defenseless, trapped, 9 year old boy, watching him tremble, crying with pain, clutching the alter. This troubled boy has grown up, turning into an awkward, bumbling fool. He is the groom of the estate, and the priest, Father Tom, enjoys hobnobbing with the upper classes, hunting, keeping his horse in the stables.
    The story is told through the experiences of Detective Inspector Strafford. He is Protestant. But still he is summoned to an audience with the high priest of Ireland. The Bishop or Archbishop or whatever of Dublin or something. A very dangerous man who makes it crystal clear to Strafford that he will be destroyed if the affair were to become public.
    But beside all this religious darkness we learn much of the other characters, making for an enjoyable read.

The Newton Letter, by John Banville

     Mefisto, Banville's earlier book, had little to do with Faust or mathematics despite the fact that such things were advertised in the blurb. Thus I didn't expect this book to have much to do with Newton. But he wasn't wholly absent. As is the case with many people, a phase of intense creativity in young years is followed by a period of stagnation later on. A mid-life crisis. Newton turned to the Bible, imagining it to be a scientific treatise, written by God, which when examined carefully would yield the secrets of the Universe. He also delved into alchemy, mixing chemicals, poisoning himself, perhaps leading to madness in later life, with the dream of amassing never ending golden riches.
    The hero of the present book is writing a biography of Newton, concentrating on this interesting phase of his life. He has been working on the book for seven years, but now he has realized that this project is nothing more than useless nonsense, and so he has given up and rented a place - what used to be the gatekeepers cottage - on a rundown estate somewhere in the back woods of Ireland for the summer. And thus ends all reference to Newton.
    The remnants of the ancient aristocratic family consist of two sisters, a child, and a man who may or may not be the husband of one of the sisters. The less attractive one, the sister without the man, throws herself at the hero, and they subsequently spend most of the summer together in bed. The book is then concerned with philosophical observations on the role of intimacy when dealing with persons one finds to be slightly repellent.
    To be honest, I would have preferred to read about the details of Newton's excursions into the realms of speculative religion and the esoteric rather than this somewhat banal story.

Even the Dead, by Benjamin Black (John Banville)

     Banville has written seven books under the pseudonym Benjamin Black. These are crime stories involving Quirke, a pathologist with a difficult background in the Dublin of the 1950s. The first book of Banville which I read, April in Spain, was also a Quirke book, but published under his real name. And then Snow is also a crime novel, continuing the series, but the character of Quirke no longer takes an active part. These books are completely different in style from the two "serious" Banville books which I have read up to now. They are fluent, direct, full of atmosphere. A style which would disgust the academic judges of all those literary prizes. The rambling, train-of-thought writing of the more serious Banville was indeed such that he received the Booker Prize in 2005 for The Sea. But reading the reviews of that book suggest that it would not appeal to me.
    The present book is the seventh in the Quirke series. I thought maybe I could read backwards through the series, ending up at the first volume, Christine Falls. But then I suspect that the later books reveal details which in the earlier books remained mysterious, thus reading of consequences before knowing what the actions were which preceded them. In this seventh volume, Quirke appears worn out, he suffers from a knock on the skull which he received in a previous episode and he has been convalescing for weeks at the home of his brother. The story involves a closed Catholic institution, a kind of religious prison for unmarried pregnant women whose babies are then sold off for adoption to Catholic families in the United States. It starts off with a car crash, a murder, and it ends with the killing of the evil figure behind all of this.
    John Banville - in contrast to Tony Blair and other such figures - is obviously no friend of the Roman Catholic Church.

The Book of Evidence, John Banville

     The story follows, more or less closely, the real-life murder of a young nurse in Dublin by Malcolm Edward MacArthur. The corresponding character in the book is Freddie Montgomery. Unlike MacArthur, Freddie has actually done some work in his life, having a position as a statistician in California for a year or two. But essentially he is like MacArthur. The son of an ancient Irish family, living off the remains of the estate until it is bankrupted, leaving him with no means of support. In desperation he tries stealing a painting from the mansion of a family who had bought his family's paintings. It is a messy, sloppy business. A maid jumps into the backseat of his getaway car, careening down the road. She hits him and he takes a hammer and slams it into her skull two or three times, killing her. Then the book is written as if it were a description of his life, written in prison, explaining all the circumstances, imagining that he is writing this as truth, a confession to be submitted to the court in order that an honest judgement of his case and his life can be made. Many of the details parallel that in the MacArthur case. All very sordid.
    The fact that justice is not equal between the common people and the members of the aristocracy is shown by the real-life treatment given to MacArthur, who was "confined" in the luxurious Shelton Abbey prison where the inhabitants wile away their time pursuing pleasant pastimes, for example golf, woodworking, arts and crafts or pottery. MacArthur was released in 2012 after 30 years of this comfortable life. It must have been a shock for him to reenter a world in which he no longer had a comfortable hereditary income. Similarly, John Banville has written two further books as a sequel to this one, describing the descent of the hero, Freddie Montgomery into a life of degeneration and crime after his release from prison. But reading the reviews of those books makes me think that I've read enough of this story already.
    It was nicely written, in the rambling, "serious" style which caused it to be shortlisted for the Booker Prize. But somehow, finishing a book like this with all the characters and events being unpleasant, void of all redemption, is a depressing thing.

Benjamin Black

     As mentioned before, Benjamin Black is the pseudonym of John Banville when he is writing crime stories featuring the character Quirke, a pathologist in a Dublin hospital. At the time I am writing this, having read through three of the Quirke books, I have still not discovered what Mr. Quirke's given name is. On the other hand, before starting at the beginning of this series I had read the last episode, Even the Dead, and there it is revealed who his true father is. Therefore I know that his quirky last name is itself false, or a pseudonym. He was deposited as an orphan in a cruel Catholic institution for destitute boys before being "rescued" by the wealthy and powerful Dublin judge who poses as his adoptive father.
    Quirke is a heavy whisky drinker. He's always thinking about it, feeling guilty and hungover after his prolonged drunken episodes. He tells us he is not addicted to alcohol; it is a substitute for his loneliness and regrets. But then after a period of drying out in a Catholic institution for the correction of moral weaknesses, he recognizes his alcoholism and resolves to become completely abstinent... A difficult resolution in the alcoholic culture of Ireland. And then he smokes continuously, even more so after giving up the drink. Everybody is smoking. We are told of silver cigarette cases being stylishly flourished about the place, and the ceremony of lighting up, flicking open a Zippo, or even a silver or gold lighter. And then we have the different brands of cigarettes. I've forgotten which brand Quirke favors. But the characters are often described by the brands of cigarettes they smoke. Simple country folk - including Inspector Hackett - smoke the rough cigarettes associated with them, while the more refined classes of society have their own brands. I wonder if these really were the brands of cigarettes which were sold in Ireland in those days. I had never heard of them. They were not the brands which dominated the world of advertising back in those days: Marlborough, Camels, Benson & Hedges, and all that. And so the dialogue in these stories is continuously punctuated with hacking coughs.
    I'm enjoying reading these books describing the simple depravities of Ireland in the 1950s. It is a pleasant way to divert the mind from the much deeper depravities which are being imposed on us in the 2020s. I see that John Banville was born in 1945, just a year or two before me. Surely this was the most optimal time here in Europe, and in most of the world, to have been born and to have spent a lifetime. A time of peace and freedom. Maybe it is true that every generation, upon reaching old age, says that the world is falling apart. I hope this will not be the case for the world our children and grandchildren will be inhabiting, but things do not look good at the moment. And so it is pleasant to go back to the world of the 1950s in these books, knowing that it was the beginning of a wonderful time.

Christine Falls:
    This is the first book of the series. An unmarried woman dies after a difficult childbirth. An unpleasant business in the brutally Catholic Ireland of the 1950s. And the woman who had attended her is subsequently beaten to death. We learn that all of this is connected with an association of horrible old men, the Knights of Saint Patrick. They accept "fallen" women into their prison-like laundry where the women are forced to work under the supervision of cruel nuns. The babies are then taken away and transported to the United States where they are given to Irish Catholic families, not to be adopted, but rather to be temporarily brought up before being forced to become priests or nuns.
    We learn much about the background of Quirke. He and his brother Malachy - or Mal - as medical students had spent some time in Boston (Massachusetts), 20 years before our time. They became acquainted with the two daughters of a rich Irish immigrant. That must have been in the 1930s. The good daughter, Sarah, refused to indulge in sex before marriage. Delia, the other, became pregnant, so that Quirke had to marry her, but she died in childbirth and Mal married the lovely Sarah, much to Quirke's regret. Quirke's daughter Phoebe is then brought up by Mal and Sarah as their own, not telling her who her parents really were.
    It is now the present, that is to say some time in the 1950s. Quirke suspects that Mal, who is a member of these Knights of Saint Patrick, had gotten Christine Falls pregnant. Was he then responsible for the murder of the other woman in order to cover it up? And had he even had Quirke himself beaten to within an inch of his life in order to stop him from investigating further? The old Judge Griffin - the father - disliked his son Mal and always favored Quirke. But the judge, despite his age and standing in Irish society, is himself no angel. And Phoebe is told that Quirke, who she now hates, is her real father.
    The last book of the series, Even the Dead, which I read a week or two ago, also deals with the same basic story: the illegal shipping of illegitimate babies from Dublin to Boston. I wondered if all of these Quirke books would continue with just this single theme. That would be boring. But I have gotten started on the second book in the series and it is concerned with a different form of depravity, so I suspect there will be an interesting variety of crimes to read about in the next couple of weeks.

The Silver Swan:
    "Doctor" Kreutz, despite his name, is a mysterious Indian person, expounding Eastern religions and practices while performing erotic massages on middle-aged women, snapping pornographic pictures of them with his camera. A younger woman gets mixed up in this business, keeping things secret from her middle-aged husband. She goes into partnership with Doctor Kreutz's sidekick, Leslie White, a sleazy but elegant man, seemingly irresistible to all women. Their business is "The Silver Swan" beauty parlor. Even Quirke's daughter Phoebe, in all her innocence, is attracted to White.
    The whole thing ends in a series of murders. Was the first death, that of the young woman, a suicide?

Elegy for April:
    This is the beginning of the story that was resolved in April in Spain, thus answering the question posed at the end of the book. We are introduced to the Latimer family. April Latimer is perhaps 25 and she is a junior doctor in the hospital where Quirke is the pathologist. As we saw in that later book, the uncle is a powerful and corrupt politician in 1950s Ireland. The father was a famous fighter in the struggle for Irish independence, but his private life was filled with degrading, horrible excesses. April's brother is a brittle but successful Dublin lawyer.
    Unfortunately poor old Phoebe, Quirke's daughter, is again brought into the whole mess. She has a circle of friends including April. There is also a small, pushy young man who works as a reporter for a Dublin newspaper.
    - Thankfully the "legacy media" is now gradually dying out. We have finally cancelled our subscription to the local newspaper which we have been receiving for the last 40 years or more. -
    Also an actress in the Irish theater; and finally an African medical student from Nigeria. All of the women are fascinated by this exotic member of the circle. We are told of Phoebe's fascination with his dark skin: its texture, its smell. And in an erotic passage we are told of her beautiful union with the student on his narrow bed. The old woman living in the top floor of the derelict house where the actress lives tells us that the student has been a frequent visitor there. And what about April, who, according to the moral values of the Dublin of that time, lives a wild, unconventional life?
    The story starts off with Phoebe wondering where April is. She has not heard from her for the past two weeks. And she gets Quirke into the quest to find April. As a pleasant distraction, Quirke is welcomed into the bed of the actress. I find this difficult to understand. In fact, women seem to throw themselves at Quirke. We can understand this in the case of the healthy young African, but Quirke? He spends half his time staggering about in a drunken stupor. And not only for that half, but for all the time, he is filling the air with his foul cigarette smoke. Do women really find that to be attractive? Does this reflect the desires of most women, or is it only an aberration in the mind of John Banville? Who knows?
    Perhaps his attraction as far as the actress was concerned was at least partially based on the fact that he purchased a very exclusive car in the middle of the story. An Alvis TC 108 Super Graber Coupé. Apparently only three of these hand made cars were ever produced. Am I giving too much away to say that at the end of the story, Quirke's car is totally demolished. Driven off a cliff into the sea, thus leaving the world with only two of these cars. Or is this just a fiction so that, in fact, all three still remain in existence?
    In any case it is clear that the Latimer family has gotten rid of April in one way or another.


A Death in Summer:
    A man is found with his head blasted off, attached to the body with just a few strands of corpuscle. He has a shotgun in his hands. Obviously the killer placed the gun in the hands of the corpse. I can't imagine that a shotgun would be capable of blasting off a person's head. Could it be possible if the gun was filled with heavy, explosive slugs? His name is/was Richard Jewell, or Diamond Dick. Inspector Hackett and Quirke are at the scene of the crime. The wife and sister of the deceased are strangely distanced. We are told that Richard Jewell was a Jew. But he had a Catholic upbringing and considered himself to be a Christian. Nevertheless the other characters think of him as being Jewish. They are not prepared to separate him from his original tribe, or caste. We are told that other characters are also Jewish. Except for Quirke's assistant, David Sinclair, who also belongs to the tribe, they all seem to be evil. Is John Banville an anti-Semite? He is certainly anti-Roman Catholic.
    What is the nature of this evil? They, along with various Christian men, are members of a society called the Friends of Saint Christopher's Orphanage. Poor little boys, 7 or 8 years old, are held prisoner in this institution. It is run by a person named Father Ambrose. An elegant old man. He is essentially a pimp, selecting boys to be abused by these Friends of the Orphanage. Jewell is continuously seeking "fresh meat" to satisfy his tastes. He has even abused his own daughter and his step-sister, who is much younger than him.
    The French wife, whose maiden name was Françoise d'Aubigny, is a manipulative person. She sleeps with Quirke. And also Phoebe is again dragged into things as well. Towards the end when Françoise has escaped to her property on the Côte d'Azure, she tells us that her father was fascinated with German culture. (This is just after World War II.) She angrily spits out the German equivalent of Françoise, namely Franziska. Well, that war is long in the past, and I prefer the name Franziska rather than the manipulative Françoise.

Vengeance:
    This one was a pleasant break from all those Roman Catholic religious orders with their members abusing children in horrible ways. Given all the bitterness of the writing, I wondered if the author had himself suffered such abuse. According to his Wikipedia page, he did go to Catholic schools, but he was living at home. The entry includes the absurd statement: " A reformed criminal, Banville stole a book from Wexford County Library while in his teens." Can we speculate that perhaps that statement might have been put into the Wikipedia by a Catholic priest? As revenge? Vengeance?
    The book begins with an interesting and bizarre scene. A young man who knows nothing about sailing is invited out for a day on the water by an older man. They sail off for hours until they are out of sight of land. Suddenly the older man draws a pistol and tells a story, seemingly threatening the younger man. Then, rather than murdering the other, he points the pistol at his own chest and fires, collapsing on the deck in an expanding puddle of blood. The young man is horrified and instinctively throws the gun away into the ocean. After many hours he is rescued.
    How can he prove that he didn't murder the older man? But it's worse than that. The whole story involves a major family business which is jointly run by two families. A generation or two before, the families were equal partners. But then one of the families began to dominate the business. This was the family of English-Protestant heritage of the older man in the boat. The family of the younger man was of Irish-Catholic heritage. And secretly this younger man had been manipulating the finances, squeezing out the other family. Thus one way or another, it would seem that the younger man would be ruined.
    But it is a complicated story with many more twists and turns. And we are told of the ambivalent feeling of the Irish for their Irish-Anglo-Protestant neighbors. They are despised for their role in past history, and yet they are respected as being better businessmen, more honest, more successful than the Catholics.

  Holy Orders:
    In the middle of the night a body is found floating in the canal. It turns out to be Jimmy Minor, the reporter, the sometime friend of Phoebe. Again a long story where, this time, we encounter the "Tinkers". I think they are now called the "Travelers". An Irish phenomenon, similar but distinct from the Gypsies, or Romani. (The champion heavyweight boxer, Tyson Fury tells us that he is a Traveler.) But in the end everything again comes down to the abuse of small children by Roman Catholic priests.
    Well, this is the end of the Benjamin Black, Quirke books. He has gradually gotten onto my nerves with his constant need for whisky and cigarettes. During the story Quirke begins to experience hallucinations. He seems to be losing his mind. The final scene has him in the office of a specialist, presumably a neurologist, X-raying his brain to see what's wrong with it. While alcohol addles the brain it must also preserve whatever there is which remains. We are not told what the result of the examination has been.

Snow Flower and the Secret Fan, Lisa See

     After having immersed myself in all those John Banville books I was at a loss as to what to read next. I tried The Wanderer by Knut Hamsun. That is actually a trilogy of short books. I read through the first story; a man, apparently well-off, rejects the comforts of the city and occupies himself with casual laboring jobs on the farms of southern Norway. He falls in love with middle-aged farmers wives who reject him. Meaninglessness, hopelessness. Starting on the second book of the trilogy before quickly giving up, it was just more of the same. Then I tried A Room with a View, by E.M. Forester. Perhaps it was meant to be amusing. But again, it seemed meaningless. The news, Ukraine, Covid, was just too depressing.
    This book by Lisa See was similarly depressing to match the general mood. As always, she writes about China. I was unclear about the time of the book until near the end where it is said that much of the suffering was due to the Taiping Rebellion, which was in the 1850s. But the story could have equally well been placed hundreds of years before that time. If everything she writes about these things is true then China must have been one of the most distorted and warped societies that has ever existed.
    First of all we have the horrible business of deforming the feet of young girls. As it is described, when the child is about 6 years old, having been allowed to run about and play in the healthy air before that time, the little girl is then confined to the "women's room" in the upstairs part of the house. There the feet are bound tightly, and ever more tightly. The girl cries out in pain, but is forced to walk back and forth in the room, with the binding ever tighter. Soon the bones break, the girl weeps in pain but is forced to walk back and forth again and again. The broken bones are then bound ever more tightly, and the result after a couple of years is either gangrene setting in and the girl dies, or the bones set in a bizarre deformity, rendering the growing girl and the grown woman a virtual cripple. It is then said that men found such deformed, crippled feet to be sexually attractive! How can we understand such sexual depravity which apparently pervaded the whole culture of China? And then the main character continuously tells us how ugly normal, healthy feet are. These are the feet of the women servants. I read quickly through the disgusting chapters where the narrator, Lily, and her contracted friend, Snow Flower, have their feet bound.
    From then on life for the women was confined almost exclusively to the "women's room". Soon they are married off to other families and other women's rooms. Their only value there is measured according to their ability to produce male babies. Female babies are rubbish; a drain on the household; a useless mouth to feed and then a drain on the family finances since a marriage involves large sums of money being transferred from the family of the bride to that of the groom. Then if the husband of the woman dies she is considered to be disposable and is sold off as a servant, or perhaps as a sex-slave to the highest bidder.
    Could it really be that this brutal and disgusting story represents a true description of traditional Chinese society? Lisa See has told us of her qualifications for writing about such subjects. She has visited her distant relatives in China, heard their stories. How depressing. Perhaps we can understand Mao's cultural revolution as a very sensible way to change things for the better.
    Having finished the book and looking for something else I saw that Lisa See had written Flower Net, a kind of detective story which she published in 1997. A story of a network of organized Chinese crime, smuggling things into California. We have the Chinese investigators using their methods and then the American FBI with its methods. The Americans are described as civilized, reasonable, helpful, while the Chinese are also nice people, but they are prepared to exercise brutality. In particular we read about the fact that each neighborhood in China has an overseer who records all the details of the lives of everybody in the neighborhood, down to the last details. On the basis of these records it is then determined what they are allowed to do, where they are allowed to live, whether or not they are to be punished.
    Some time ago I watched the Black Mirror series, showing more or less fanciful possible futures, dystopias. One episode was a humorous story of a young woman in a society dominated by a mobile telephone software similar to "Facebook". People continuously clicking "like" or "dislike" buttons. Having lots of "likes" allowed people to have better places to live, higher income, education, travel, and all that. The woman of the story tried everything to get as many "likes" as possible, yet she dropped further and further down in her "Facebook" score, becoming an outcast, homeless, rejected. And then I saw a report saying that exactly this system is being implemented in modern China! How horrible. A realization of this fictitious dystopia. Could it be that we will face a similar fate? After all, the traditional forms of government are gradually being replaced by the companies which control the virtual world that people live in today. When I walk about the place, most people I see are not looking at the world around them. Instead they are holding their mobile telephones up to their faces while walking. But on the other hand, although it appears to be part of traditional Chinese culture to be continuously evaluated by a neighborhood overseer, that is not the case here. The Stasi of East Germany is a recent memory which is thought of with revulsion. So I hope that we will not soon be living in a world governed by "Facebook" likes and dislikes.

Robert Peel, a Biography, Douglas Hurd

     I've been finding it difficult to get started reading things, soon giving up, dissatisfied with what was started. The book Entangled Life, by Merlin Sheldrake, seemed interesting. All about fungi, mushrooms, yeast and all that. They are everywhere. In the soil where they are essential for plant growth. Indeed, they create the soil in the first place. And our bodies are full of all sorts of fungi. We would not be able to live without them. It really is a fascinating subject. But the often flippant style of writing put me off. Merlin Sheldrake (a wonderful name) tells us of his experiences with LSD, administered to him in the experimental environment of a hospital. He describes the fungi which infect certain kinds of ants. It changes the behavior of the ants, making them climb up to the top of a plant and then bite into the stem of the plant with a death grip. The fungi then consumes the body of the ant, growing a stalk, or mushroom, which projects from the ant's head. He then speculates for page upon page about the relationship of ergot to humanity. This is a fungi that grows on grains and led to much sickness in medieval Europe. It also causes hallucinations and is the basis of LSD. And then there is mescalin and the "magic mushrooms". Are these fungi taking over the human race in a similar manner to the ant fungi? Such speculation became boring and I turned to something else before getting very far into the book.
    I tried Why We Love Pirates, by Rebecca Simon PhD. She explains in an interesting way who Captain Kidd was and how he was unfairly used to set an example. She tells us how much she enjoyed the movies of the Pirates of the Caribbean with Johnny Depp. And so the book goes on and on about what happened in the Bahamas at the beginning of the 17th century. But surely there is much more to piracy than just that. We have the modern day pirates capturing gigantic ships off East Africa. Perhaps they are not lovable, but their prizes are impressive. Then the pirates in Indonesia, around the Maluku Islands, or those in the Strait of Malacca. And of course there have been pirates throughout history. Think of the "Shores of Tripoli" of the 19th century which the Marines sing about, or even the pirates of Ancient Rome. It is a huge subject, yet the book was nothing more than a romantic celebration in the style of Johnny Depp. I quickly gave up.
    And so I thought I would try a few biographies. Real stories about real people. I started with this one about Sir Robert Peel, the British Prime Minister of the 1840s. The author, who writes elegantly and with deep knowledge of his subject, was the Home Secretary under Margaret Thatcher. Occasionally in the text he compares one situation or another which confronted Peel with something or other to do with Thatcher, always in her favor, which was an irritation. But apart from that it was a very enjoyable read. It was pleasant to fill the mind with the world of the early 19th century. Of course there was much wrong with the England of those days, and Peel was not always prepared to do the right thing. But at least he did not require the whole population to lock themselves in their houses for weeks on end, wear masks and be injected with genetically engineered substances. And so it was very pleasant to live for a few days in a different time of long ago while reading this book.
    In the 1830s and 40s people remembered the horrors of the French Revolution. Thus there was very much of a conservative feeling. Society should only be changed slowly, gradually. The interests of rich landowners and the wealthy industrialists were respected.
    What was the normal state of affairs in those days? For example, Catholics were not allowed to sit in parliament. Thus whereas the vast majority of Irish were Catholic, they were denied representation. In fact at the beginning of his career, Peel was the commissioner for Ireland, representing the conservative interests of the Protestant - English - minority. Much of the book is concerned with Ireland. And then there was the corrupt electoral system. Voting was open, in front of everyone. Obviously a tenant farmer did not cast a vote opposing that of his local squire. And of course only men who owned a certain amount of property and income could vote. Some rural constituencies only had a few small villages while major cities of the industrial revolution such as Manchester were hardly represented at all. And then there were the Corn Laws, first brought in to finance the war against the French. The import of grains was taxed on a variable basis, thus ensuring that the local squires and farmers had a guaranteed high price for their crops. The Corn Law was brought in again after Napoleon was defeated to satisfy the farmer's lobby. Peel was at first a staunch supporter of all of these things, but later, as Prime Minister, he had them all changed.
    We read much of the complicated politics of those times. One advantage of the chaotic and unfair electoral system was that each member of parliament was an individual, only loosely tied to a party. There was nothing of the rigid party discipline of these days. If Boris Johnson were to be substituted for Robert Peel in the 1840s, his lockdowns, mask, and genetic injection proposals would have been greeted with derision and rebellion. Parliamentarians were free to think for themselves and to vote as they pleased.
    Robert Peel was the son of a wealthy textile manufacturer. We read about his childhood, schooling, university. He went to Harrow where, we are told, education consisted almost exclusively of the learning of Latin. The goal was to be able to speak and to read and write Latin as fluently as his native English. The pupils, even in private, were to speak Latin. Advanced pupils learned Ancient Greek and Hebrew. Science and mathematics was unheard of. He was a contemporary of Lord Byron at Harrow who recalled that "while I (Byron) was always in scrapes, he (Peel) never". Studying at Oxford he discovered that there was more to the world than just Latin. Oxford actually had science. And so Peel decided to study both the Classics and Mathematics. He became the first person ever to have obtained a double first in these two disciplines.
    Without being an aristocrat he had inherited great wealth. When reading in the book of the sums of money involved in one thing and another, these sums are sometimes compared with the modern-day equivalents which have been diminished by inflation. There is an official inflation calculator of the Bank of England. Clicking in there, we see that one English pound of 1840 is calculated to have the same value as £108.40 today. That is, English money is less than one hundredth the value it used to have. But then, when describing the huge palace-like houses Peel lived in in London, with his collection of paintings and everything else, we are confronted with a few seeming contradictions. For example we are told that he built himself a huge mansion, or palace, on a beautiful site with extensive gardens overlooking the river, and it cost him £14,000. Multiplying that by the Bank of England's supposed rate of inflation, we obtain something like one and a half million pounds. Yet that would be barely sufficient to buy a modestly sized apartment with two or three bedrooms in some high-rise building in today's London!
    Despite his wealth, as Prime Minister Peel was concerned about the plight of the poor. During the Irish potato famine he tried to import as much corn (maize) from the United States into Ireland as possible. By reducing import duties on food and most other things, life became more affordable and the English economy became more competitive. In a time of loose morals he was devoted to his wife and his family. At the age of 62, on a ride in London, he was thrown from his horse. His injuries were such that he died a few days later. Crowds of people gathered before his house to morn the passing of a politician loved by the people.

Samuel Pepys, The Unequaled Self, Claire Tomalin

     Years ago the Folio Society put out a three volume set of the Diary of Samuel Pepys which I have here on my shelves. It is not the complete diary. According to the Introduction, about 2/3 had been left out, which means that the whole thing must take up about 9 volumes and over 10,000 closely written pages. Nevertheless this edition has at least part of what Pepys wrote for each of the days in the 10 years he kept the diary. It is a beautifully produced set with many fine illustrations. But of course I did not read every page. I suppose I soon gave up, browsing here and there, admiring the pictures. Then a few years later I got another book from the Folio Society called "The Illustrated Pepys: Extracts from the Diary". Very interesting and enjoyable, and something I could read all the way through. Over the years different publishers have extracted just a sufficient number of passages to make a normal-sized book. The 19th century extracts avoided everything scandalous whereas more recent editions include all the juicy bits in addition to the set pieces: the Fire of London and the Great Plague.
    It is interesting to read what Pepys writes on all sorts of themes. His state of health, music, his personal friendship with many of the leading figures of the London of the 1660s, including the King, Charles II. He was also a member of the Royal Society in those days when it was a club for pleasant discussions of all the phenomena which interested the members. So now I have read another book about Pepys. This one is more concerned with the juicy bits, following the fashion of today.
    We have Pepys mixture of Latin and French words for obscuring his erotic fumblings. Claire Tomalin suspects that he used these as a way of increasing the pleasure of his memories while writing the diary. But she tells us that his encounters were mainly confined to erotic fondling; perhaps only the poor Mrs. Bagwell was subjected to a long-term and full sexual exploitation. Her husband, Mr. Bagwell, a carpenter at the naval yards, was offering his wife as a kind of prostitute in exchange for favors. And then we are told that at one point in the diary Pepys has intercourse with his wife and finds that she is enjoying it. He thinks that this is strange, unnatural, and he meditates on it. Women are only there for the pleasure of men.
    The author, who certainly does not condemn her subject, tells us that the diary is perhaps the best description in literature of the married state. Really? Am I just being boring, old-fashioned, conservative? I find the way Pepys was continually cheating other people, always lying through his teeth, to be very distasteful. For example he obtained one of his positions by making a deal with somebody else: Thomas Povey. It was agreed that the usual bribery payments which came with the office would be split equally between them. But although Pepys received bribes of many thousands of pounds, he gave Povey nothing at all and replied to all inquiries with letters of high indignation. Well, Pepys became a wealthy and famous man. In contrast we mathematicians spend our time on obscure puzzles which interest almost nobody. Cheating, lying in the style of Pepys leads nowhere, and thus our lives remain ordinary and boring.
    The diary ends with his pursuit of Deborah "Deb" Willet. Earlier editors and biographers assumed that Deb had disappeared into the mists of history, free of Peyps's further gropings. But in an Afterword we learn that in 2006 a historian discovered documents related to Deb's further life. She married Jeremiah Wells, a theologian, and we learn that Pepys obtained a position for Wells as a ship's chaplain. Deb had two daughters, but then she died only a few years later. Jeremiah Wells died a year and a half after that. All of this is in the time after the diary so that we have no definite details, mere speculation. Was Deb treated similarly to Mrs. Bagwell, with Wells playing the role of a pimp? Were perhaps one or another of the daughters Pepys's children? Did Pepys, with all his money, see that the two daughters were supported after both Deb and Jeremiah died?
    At the beginning of the book we are told what it was like to enter a house in London in the 17th century. The smells, the dirt, the fact that people are unwashed. And then they are continually getting sick and dying. We learn the details of the operation to remove the stone in Pepys's bladder when he was a young man. And then after his painful death at 70 he was dissected by his associates of the Royal Society and it was found that there were stones in his right kidney, even adhering it to the back wall of the abdominal cavity. His stomach and intestines were totally inflamed. But his heart and right kidney were still sound. And then much earlier, after a holiday trip to France, his wife Elizabeth became ill and died within three weeks. She was only about 40 years old. Pepys's siblings, his relatives, all seemed to die quickly. At least his father enjoyed a longer life.
    What were they all dying of? Was it just the dirt, the unsanitary water, unclean food, the immoral way of life? These days most people live well beyond 70. I am approaching 75, running a few miles a couple of days each week, taking no medicines, avoiding doctors, particularly since they started injecting people with these gene therapy shots. What advantages do we really have over those people of 350 years ago? For example the kings and queens of that time rarely made it much past 50, assuming that they were not assassinated before then. But the present Queen Elizabeth, her husband and her mother all live up to and beyond 100.

Hidden: Betrayed exploited and forgotten, Kathy Glass

     When starting to write my thoughts here, discovering the homepage of the author, I was astonished to find that she has already published something like 36 books. Kathy Glass is a foster mother. A foster family takes children who the social services deem to be in troubling circumstances and gives them a temporary home until either things clear up, or real adoptive parents are found. She must have had at least 36 foster children. It seems that each of her books describes one of them. This one is a 10 year old boy named Tayo. He is clearly an African, but upon arrival he tells the author that he is white. The story is that his mother came from Southeast Asia; was it Thailand? She was working as a lap-dancer in Nigeria where she slept with the father of Tayo. He was a highly educated and successful businessman, and without marrying her he agreed to support her while having his son Tayo living in his large house in Lagos where he attended the finest schools in the country. But when Tayo was only 5 or 6 the mother kidnapped him and took him on an odyssey, finally ending in London where she worked as an occasional prostitute. She was a drug addict. She hated Africa - and almost everything else - and told Tayo that he was white, not black. Tayo had to organize her life for her, dodging the fists of drunken, drugged men, occasionally staying with other people, attending various schools temporarily, even being forced to work in a sweatshop in London on a sewing machine for 12 or more hours a day.
    When Tayo was brought to stay with Kathy Glass she was astonished to find that he spoke politely with a very refined British accent. He gradually grew used to life with Kathy, doing well at school. The mother could only be contacted through a mobile phone number which was almost always turned off. She gave no address. Contacts were violent displays of shouting and bad language. While the mother needed Tayo to help her, it was clear that he needed a stable family, away from the mother.
    He had vague memories of an ideal former life in Nigeria. He wanted to return to Nigeria to his dad. This became an obsession. He expected people to find his dad and bring him home. But the mother refused to give any information, and Tayo couldn't remember. What was the real name of his father? Where had he lived in Nigeria? Tayo became sullen, withdrawn. All he could think about was returning to his father in Nigeria.
    Then suddenly he was found. The father had employed private detectives, searching everywhere: Thailand, Europe, looking for Tayo, year after year for five years. He came to England, an elegantly dressed gentleman, meeting Kathy and learning about the situation of his son. There was a legal process for Tayo's custody, opposed at first by the mother who appeared in court in a drunken state, shouting and swearing. And so custody was granted and Tayo returned to Nigeria, the land of his dreams. A beautifully written, moving book.

Christianity as Mystical Fact and the Mysteries of Antiquity, Rudolf Steiner

     Listening to a recent podcast, the speaker described how after living for years in the Far East he had come back to Christianity. He described the thoughts of the ancient Greek philosophers, their assertion that the true Revelation was in everybody, only needing to be awakened, and it was of a nature beyond words, incapable of being described. This mystical fact is the basis of Christianity. He was asked where one might read further into such things and he recommended the writings of Rudolf Steiner.
    The word Mystery fills this book, and we wonder what it is. What is a Mystical Fact? How is it possible to write a book describing something which is beyond description? A few chapter headings: The Mysteries and their Wisdom; The Greek Sages Before Plato in the Light of the Wisdom of the Mysteries; Plato as Mystic; The Mystery Wisdom of Egypt; The Lazarus Miracle; Christianity and Heathen Wisdom. Passages in the Bible, in Plato's Symposium, and in other ancient writings are examined and interpreted in terms of secret meanings. All of this was too mysterious for me.
    Perhaps much of this speculation is motivated by the seemingly brutal fact that each of us will, individually, in reality, in some very specific way, time and place, die. There is no vaccination against this. Covering your face with a mask and hiding at home will not make it go away. Is this something to become nervous about, frightened? To have "butterflies in the stomach" as if some difficult public performance must be prepared for and for which we are ill prepared. By its very nature Death is a mystery. People who have had near-death experiences and people who have accompanied many deaths in hospices tell us that death can be a wonderful experience if we do not fight it. Otherwise it can be dreadful.
    Surely the best thing is to live in the world of our experience as it is. It is often thought that modern physics is a mystery, only to be understood in terms of esoteric thought. I prefer to let the mind and the spirit seek a more rational revelation.